As regards STS operations outside territorial waters, the provisions of United Nations' International Maritime Organization (IMO) apply. The regulations stipulate that the operation must be carried out in accordance with an approved plan, which is made on the basis of the ship's construction, equipment and valid industry guidelines for "best practice" in the area. In addition, the operation must be reported to the relevant authorities in the coastal State.
Furthermore, HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission) has developed a set of recommendations for guidelines on bunkering operations and ship to ship cargo transfer of oils in the Baltic Sea Area. HELCOM is the governing body of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area.
Read more about HELCOM guidelines
In 2018, 62 STS operations were performed outside Danish territorial waters but inside the Danish EEZ. The quantity transferred however was only 151.627 tonnes of which only three operations involved the transfer of more than 5.000 tonnes. In all cases the transfer dealt with bunker oils, being transferred to small tankers approved to perform bunkering operations in Danish territorial waters. Bunker ships which subsequently distributed the bunker oils to other cargo ships for their daily power consumption.
Read more about STS operations..